Oral malodour called halitosis, and commonly referred to as ‘bad breath’, is a socially offensive and discriminating occurrence that requires effective management for health improvement and avoidance of debasing stratification of sufferer. Halitosis has been reported to be prevalent in up to 50% of the general population in the USA, and about 6-23% in China. Between 80% and 85% of halitosis cases are caused by intraoral conditions. Literature on halitosis in Jamaica is either scarce or non-existent. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, a common malodour that seemed to be spreading among persons through oral interaction by face-to-face contact with a sufferer was observed among the general populace in Mandeville, Manchester, Jamaica.
The control of invasive species in crops with low tolerance are seen as a public good. This makes it a collective responsibility led by government. This is done directly through public expenditure on control measures or indirectly through incentives to people whose actions may be a contributing factor to the problem. The risks associated with invasive species have been increasing especially with globalization but are changing in nature thus warranting novel strategies for their management.
The worldwide ginger market was valued at US$6.82 billion in 2020, with India, Nigeria and China being the top global producers (Global Ginger Market Report, 2021). Jamaican ginger once held pride of place in the global market, with its widely accepted superior quality, uniqueness of flavor and high oil content. However, since the initial outbreak of the ginger rhizome rot disease in 1995, production has drastically plummeted to insignificant levels and the industry has not yet recovered. In this regard, a number of intervention strategies have been implemented by the Government of Jamaica over the years, including the Eastern Jamaica Agricultural Support Project of 1993 under RADA, the Ginger Agricultural Science, Technology and Innovation Working Group initiative supported by the CTA ACP-EU under the National Commission and Science and Technology in 2005, the Ginger Resuscitation and Expansion Programme of 2011 led by the Export Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ginger Value Chain Study supported by the FAO, the Ginger Varietal Study funded through the Jamaica Business Development Fund in 2018 and the ongoing Ginger Value Chain and Certification Programme supported by the FAO, with propagation and production of disease-free planting materials. These programmes, amounting to investments of millions of dollars, through partnerships with the key private, governmental and international stakeholders, have been met with varying degrees of success.
Opening of Conference Space Orientation and Ice Breaker Activities in the Gather.Town space
Elsevier is a Netherlands-based academic publishing company specializing in scientific, technical, and medical content. Its products include a number of top-tiered international journals the online citation database Scopus, the SciVal tool for measuring research performance. This publishing house works across all areas of STEM and its products and services also include digital tools for data management, instruction, research analytics and assessment. The company runs several workshops aimed at capacity building with their stakeholders and users.
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