Vector-borne diseases have since the 17th century been the leading cause of death by disease more than any other causes combined, even preventing development in the tropics (Gubler 1998). Of all insect vectors, Aedes aegypti proves to be the deadliest as it is the primary vector of the four most notorious vector-borne diseases – chikungunya (chik-V), Zika (Zik-V), dengue fever and yellow fever viruses. Control of the spread of Aedesborne diseases is primarily reliant on the control of the vector responsible for their spread. Traditionally, vector control relied on environmental hygiene and the elimination of breeding sites (Gubler 1998), shifting only in the 1980s to the use of synthetic chemicals in the form of carbamate, organochloride, organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides (Norris, et al. 2015). However, the evolution of Aedes aegypti resistance to synthetic chemicals have made control of the spread of the vector and its diseases increasingly difficult. This led to the exploration of innovative and alternative methods in the control of Aedes aegypti.
The majority of scientific discoveries remain confined to dissertations and peer review publications where they remain hidden from their possible industrial applications. Given the challenges offered by current global events like environmental pollution, climate change effects, and diseases, the need for more rapid transmission of scientific discoveries from the realm of postgraduate dissertations and research papers to industrial applications is most critical. Hence, the need for a clear road map, allowing the connection of both pure and applied scientific discoveries to their industrial applications is obvious. Of course, for this to be achieved, a clear understanding of the constituent steps of such a process is germane. Hence, this brief workshop aims to map a possible path for achieving the aforementioned central goal, using previous experiences and examples.
A major challenge facing farmers in Portland, Jamaica is dry weather, especially during the optimal growing season from April through August. During this five-month period Portland suffered from severe dry spells during the years 2014, 2015, 2018 and 2020. A second challenge is the damage to crops and land as well as loss of livestock due to tropical storms or hurricanes and the associated flooding. Portland farmers have suffered losses due to an active hurricane season numerous times and most recently in the years 2004, 2005, 2012 and 2020.
The worldwide ginger market was valued at US$6.82 billion in 2020, with India, Nigeria and China being the top global producers (Global Ginger Market Report, 2021). Jamaican ginger once held pride of place in the global market, with its widely accepted superior quality, uniqueness of flavor and high oil content. However, since the initial outbreak of the ginger rhizome rot disease in 1995, production has drastically plummeted to insignificant levels and the industry has not yet recovered. In this regard, a number of intervention strategies have been implemented by the Government of Jamaica over the years, including the Eastern Jamaica Agricultural Support Project of 1993 under RADA, the Ginger Agricultural Science, Technology and Innovation Working Group initiative supported by the CTA ACP-EU under the National Commission and Science and Technology in 2005, the Ginger Resuscitation and Expansion Programme of 2011 led by the Export Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ginger Value Chain Study supported by the FAO, the Ginger Varietal Study funded through the Jamaica Business Development Fund in 2018 and the ongoing Ginger Value Chain and Certification Programme supported by the FAO, with propagation and production of disease-free planting materials. These programmes, amounting to investments of millions of dollars, through partnerships with the key private, governmental and international stakeholders, have been met with varying degrees of success.
Forensic Crime Scene Investigators (FCSIs) are forensic practitioners who are key components to the investigative process within a legal framework. In fact, the criminal justice system considers the scientific evaluation and forensic evidence collection to be the most significant aspect of any criminal investigation and court cases. Despite this, limited literature exists on the psychological effects experienced by FCSIs from processing gruesome crime scenes on a regular basis.
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