The burgeoning of small gourmet chocolate boutiques worldwide serves as a key driver for niche and ultra-niche marketing of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.), branded as (a) geographical indication (b) estate origin or (c) based on unique genetics. Over 90% of the cacao farms globally, are small with an average size between 2 and 5 hectares and can benefit from supplying to the gourmet boutiques.
Science and technology and its application to regional development
Oral malodour called halitosis, and commonly referred to as ‘bad breath’, is a socially offensive and discriminating occurrence that requires effective management for health improvement and avoidance of debasing stratification of sufferer. Halitosis has been reported to be prevalent in up to 50% of the general population in the USA, and about 6-23% in China. Between 80% and 85% of halitosis cases are caused by intraoral conditions. Literature on halitosis in Jamaica is either scarce or non-existent. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, a common malodour that seemed to be spreading among persons through oral interaction by face-to-face contact with a sufferer was observed among the general populace in Mandeville, Manchester, Jamaica.
A major challenge facing farmers in Portland, Jamaica is dry weather, especially during the optimal growing season from April through August. During this five-month period Portland suffered from severe dry spells during the years 2014, 2015, 2018 and 2020. A second challenge is the damage to crops and land as well as loss of livestock due to tropical storms or hurricanes and the associated flooding. Portland farmers have suffered losses due to an active hurricane season numerous times and most recently in the years 2004, 2005, 2012 and 2020.
Pesticide usage in agriculture has occurred for centuries and led to significant positive outcomes in food production and noticeable reduction in crop losses. However, pesticide usage on food crops often results in the presence of toxic pesticide residues on food produce, which is the main route of exposure to pesticides in humans. The toxicity of the pesticide residues can potentially cause debilitating effects to major human organs and body systems. Pesticide residue analysis addresses the issue of pesticide residues in foods by screening and quantifying the levels of pesticides in food commodities.
Numerous organic chemicals, either directly manufactured or formed as byproducts of other processes, are released into the environment. Once there, many cause adverse effects on environmental and human systems. Of particular concern are long-lasting impacts from those organic pollutants that remain in the environment for long periods of time. The development of appropriate management strategies to address this problem requires knowledge of the environmental distributions of these pollutants.
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