Vector-borne diseases have since the 17th century been the leading cause of death by disease more than any other causes combined, even preventing development in the tropics (Gubler 1998). Of all insect vectors, Aedes aegypti proves to be the deadliest as it is the primary vector of the four most notorious vector-borne diseases – chikungunya (chik-V), Zika (Zik-V), dengue fever and yellow fever viruses. Control of the spread of Aedesborne diseases is primarily reliant on the control of the vector responsible for their spread. Traditionally, vector control relied on environmental hygiene and the elimination of breeding sites (Gubler 1998), shifting only in the 1980s to the use of synthetic chemicals in the form of carbamate, organochloride, organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides (Norris, et al. 2015). However, the evolution of Aedes aegypti resistance to synthetic chemicals have made control of the spread of the vector and its diseases increasingly difficult. This led to the exploration of innovative and alternative methods in the control of Aedes aegypti.
The goal of harnessing our biodiversity to bring health and wealth to the people living in the Caribbean Region got a boost recently courtesy of a 2016 IUCN project entitled ‘Advancing the Nagoya Protocol in Countries of the Caribbean Region’ that had five components. This project was commissioned by eight governments (Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Trinidad and Tobago) with GEF funding, had UNEP as its Implementing Agency and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as the Executing Agency.
Pesticide usage in agriculture has occurred for centuries and led to significant positive outcomes in food production and noticeable reduction in crop losses. However, pesticide usage on food crops often results in the presence of toxic pesticide residues on food produce, which is the main route of exposure to pesticides in humans. The toxicity of the pesticide residues can potentially cause debilitating effects to major human organs and body systems. Pesticide residue analysis addresses the issue of pesticide residues in foods by screening and quantifying the levels of pesticides in food commodities.
Numerous organic chemicals, either directly manufactured or formed as byproducts of other processes, are released into the environment. Once there, many cause adverse effects on environmental and human systems. Of particular concern are long-lasting impacts from those organic pollutants that remain in the environment for long periods of time. The development of appropriate management strategies to address this problem requires knowledge of the environmental distributions of these pollutants.
The malaria epidemic was responsible for about 241 million infectious cases and 627,000 deaths worldwide in 2020. This infectious disease, transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquito, is caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium namely P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, P. knowlesi, P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri.[2,3] Also, malaria is found predominantly in the highlands of Africa which accounts for more than 90% of infections worldwide. While there has been some success in the treatment of malaria, its eradication has been negatively impacted by insecticide and drug resistance. With emergence of thiosemicarbazone as antimalarial agents, the combination of pyridine and amide or thioamide moieties into one scaffold makes for an interesting target.
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